Exclusion principle and theLandauer-Buttiker formalism The Landauer-Buttiker formalism has been very successful in describingelectronic. Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Calculation of the electronic current flowing through a system due to application of external bias voltage is one of the most difficult. Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Examples. Farkas Dániel Gergely. Msc physics student. 1. Contents. Difference of potencials; Difference of temperatures.

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This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia’s quality standards. Consider a coherent source of electrons connected to a conductor. Transport becomes statistical and stochastic.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Butfiker conduction is not limited to electrons or holes but can also apply to phonons. Phenomena like double-slit interferencespatial resonance and other optical or microwave -like effects could be exploited in electronic systems at nanoscale in systems including nanowires and nanotubes.

Nanoelectronics Charge carriers Mesoscopic physics. From the resistance point of view, stochastic not oriented movement of electrons is useless even if they carry the same energy — they move thermally. Ballistic transport is observed when the mean free path of the electron is much longer than the dimension of the medium through which the electron travels. Articles needing cleanup from March All pages needing cleanup Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field from March Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from March All articles with unsourced statements Buttimer with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from June Articles with unsourced statements from February The contacts have a multiplicity of modes due to their larger size in comparison to the channel.

This is because there is an energy to be paid to extract the electron from the medium work function.

Ballistic transport is coherent in wave mechanics terms. As mentioned, nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes or graphene nanoribbons are often considered ballistic, but these devices only very closely resemble ballistic conduction. For example, electrons in carbon nanotubes have two intervalley modes and two spin modes. Without scattering, electrons simply obey Newton’s second law of motion at non-relativistic speeds.


Over a limited distance, the electron wave function will remain coherent.

Conversely, the quantum confinement in the 1D GNR channel constricts the number of modes to carrier degeneracy and restrictions from the energy dispersion relationship and the Brillouin zone. Normally, transport of electrons or holes is dominated by scattering events, which relax the carrier momentum in an effort to bring the conducting material to equilibrium. Ballistic conduction is the unimpeded flow of charge, or energy-carrying frmalism, over relatively lahdauer distances in a material.

Therefore, even in the case of a perfect ballistic transport, there is a fundamental ballistic conductance which saturates the current of the device with a resistance of approximately There are major differences between carbon nanotubes which are hollow and Si nanowires which are solid. Such a transport regime has been found to depend on the nanoribbon edge structure and the electron energy.

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Ballistic conduction – Wikipedia

Ballistic thermal transport has been observed in multiple materials systems buttikdr. This page was last edited on 19 Decemberat However it is still possible to observe ballistic conduction in Si nanowires at very low temperatures 2—3 K. InRolf Landauer proposed that conduction in a 1D system could be viewed as a transmission problem.

But there is still almost no energy loss. To get these characteristic scattering rates, one would need to derive a Hamiltonian and solve Fermi’s golden formzlism for the system in question. You still can deterministically predict its behavior and use it for computation theoretically.

For a given particle, a mean free path can be described as being the average length that the electron can travel freely, i. Electrons which undergo inelastic interaction are then similar to non-monochromatic light.

Like monochromatic light passing through milk, electrons undergo elastic interactions. In terms of scattering mechanisms, optical phonon emission normally dominates, depending on the material and transport conditions. Electrical contacts resulting in ballistic electron conduction are known as Sharvin Contacts. See List of thermal conductivities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The specific problem is: The mean free path can be increased by reducing the number of impurities in a crystal or by lowering its temperature.


Electrons can be scattered several ways in a conductor. It is often incorrectly thought that Si nanowires are quantum confined ballistic conductors.

Ballistic conduction

For the 1D graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor GNR-FET on the right where the channel is assumed to be ballisticthe current from A to B, given by the Boltzmann transport equationis. Ballistic conduction is typically observed in quasi-1D structures, such as carbon nanotubes or silicon nanowiresbecause of extreme size quantization effects in these materials. For example, ballistic transport can be observed in a metal nanowire: Retrieved from ” https: The electron alters its motion only upon collision with the walls.

The widely encountered phenomenon of electrical contact resistance or ECR, arises as an electric current flowing through a rough interface is restricted to a limited number of contact spots. Non-ballistic electrons behave like light diffused in milk or reflected off a white wall or a piece of paper. The dominant scattering mechanism at room temperature is that of electrons emitting optical phonons.

Different materials have different scattering probabilities which cause different incoherence rates stochasticity.

It is theoretically possible for ballistic conduction to be extended to other quasi-particles, but this has not been experimentally verified. In particular, for surfaces with high fractal dimension contact spots may be very small. If the electrons undergo inelastic interactions too, they lose energy and the result is a second mechanism of resistance. A ballistic conductor would stop conducting if the driving force is turned butttiker, whereas in a superconductor current would continue to flow after the driving supply is disconnected.

Isotopically pure diamond can have a significantly higher thermal conductivity. When the radius of a contact spot is formalisj than the mean free path of electrons, the contact resistance can be treated classically.