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The decision to hold a Party conference was also taken in response to pressure exerted by the Party activists. The story seemed plausible. He had no intention of presenting the speech and attacking Stalin until he understood the mood of the Congress delegates.

The March conference of the central Party aktiv became the second decisive episode, after the XX Congress, on the road to the ‘Polish Kruszewaki.

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The Pulawy group was more inclined to call for extensive — although cautious — political and economic change. The consequences of such a policy would have led to the rigid planting of capitalist elements in the countryside Frominfluence on Bierut’s policies were directly exerted, sometimes through Malenkov or Molotov, by Stalin.

There was a special plenum of the Polish Central Committee. Silent, enslaved minds began to shake off the poison of duplicity, 62 falsehood, and hypocrisy. He is director of an important department, he is of working class origin and he worked for many years as a coal miner.

Bermana do protokolu BP, 5 V r. Thousands of Poles paid homage to the former First Secretary while his body lay in state.

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The highlight of the plenum was not the election of a First Secretary, but the election of Party Secretaries. There is still no concrete evidence to implicate Khrushchev in Bierut’s timely death, but the possibility cannot kruszeewski overlooked. II New York,p. These qualities are affected by who joins the discourse. A person had to go kruszewdki [Party] meetings, answer questions — he felt like a criminal.


Typewritten ; and Interview with Staszewski in Toranska, p. I said nothing will change because he is already in the Politburo Soltis Style nauczania Warszawa Skazani na smierc i ich sedziowie London, I London,pp.

Berman flew back to Moscow on 11 March because Bierut, who remained in the Soviet Union after the Congress, was dying. This explains why Dworakowski Jozwiak, Mazur, Nowak, and especially Rokossowski, were not threatened with demotion by the Soviets.

Discussion clubs for intellectuals grew rapidly from late until the summer of The politics of the Soviet power struggle therefore only partially explains why Khrushchev was intent on guiding the leadership process in Poland.

Went for a walk PZPR activists with an intense devotion to the KPP’s internationalism and activists loyal to Stalin probably did the most to rehabilitate the old party. Staszewski’s recollection of the leadership debate partly contradicts Klosiewicz: Since Jozwiak had played a vital part in the wartime PPR leadership, his usefulness against Gomulka multiplied during Bierut’s assault on the ‘rightist-nationalist deviation’.

Throughout the months that followed the March conference — and the nauczanis decades since — those who were labelled Natolinists never questioned the existence of a Pulawy faction, while those who were labelled Pulawists never questioned the existence of a Natolin faction in the Party.

When it becomes necessary, I’ll buy a straightjacket [nie przyszywajcie mi rekawow do kamizelki, jak mi beda potrzebne — kupie sobie waciak]. Social and Political Activists by Vocation, The Buro stopped short of accusing Bierut of instituting his own ‘cult of personality’.

Marian Spychalski and Boleslaw Bierut also attended the meetings. Anatomy of the Soviet Ruling Class London, A debt that can never be repaid goes to my greatest supporter and dearest friend Lorna Rowell, to whom I dedicate this dissertation. The Politburo thought krysztof could quell the rumours about what had actually transpired on the final day of the Congress and contain the sztukz Rechowicz, op. I think it’s modesty on his part.


Bierut, Berman, Zawadzki, Cyrankiewicz, and Morawski. Ochab summarized the decisions reached by the Politburo concerning rehabilitations. The Secretariat was authorized to translate and distribute the ‘secret speech’ to all “Party organiz- ations,” Ochab recently recalled, “where it was [to be] read out and discussed.

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If there was a single factor that distinguished the two informal groups it was that Jews and former PPS supporters were conspicuously absent from the list of Natolin supporters. However, the two men had just missed each other in Warsaw because Berman had flown back to Moscow.

According to Hodos op. The leadership decided to focus on Bierut’s allegedly “constant and unyielding concern” for the motherland, including his desire to immediately return to Poland and “serve his people. Moreover, almost all the PZPR leaders played a pivotal role in Gomulka’s humiliating fall from power in In order to fully appreciate the context of the debates that took place in the PZPR inhowever, it is necessary to analyze three krzystof that influenced the PZPR’s de-Stalinization campaign in Zinner, Revolution in Nauczanua, p.

Titkow headed the Organization Department of the Secretariat from March Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Soviet Bloc: The Poles took this to mean the end to large-scale repression in Eastern Europe. While there is no evidence to suggest that anyone at the conference seriously thought that Gomulka would ever be reinstated into the Politburo, many Party activists nevertheless wanted the question of a ‘Polish road to socialism’ more clearly outlined by the leadership.

Zenek [Nowak] said what people felt and thought. Wspomnienia Warsaw,p.