In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount The isocost line is combined with the isoquant map to determine the optimal production point at any given level of output. Specifically, the point. Isocost-isoquant analysis: theory of production: The production function: a figure known as an isoquant diagram (Figure 1). In the graph, goldsmith-hours per. Isoquants: An isoquant (equal quantity) is a curve that shows the combinations of certain inputs such as Labor (L) and Capital (K) that will produce a certain.

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Isocost – Wikipedia

The technique involved here is similar to the indifference curve technique used in consumption theory. Prices of raw materials also go up.

In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount. For the two production inputs labour and capital, with fixed unit costs of isoccost inputs, the equation of the isocost line is.

An isoquant map shows a number of isoquants representing different amounts of output. It is elliptical which means that at some point it begins to recede from each axis.

If one of the factors becomes relatively dearer, the isocost line will contract inward to the left. This is a logical absurdity for OL units of labour alone are incapable of producing anything.

To explain the law, capital is taken as a fixed factor and labour as a variable factor. This is the economic region of production. An isoquant isoproduct isowuant a curve on which the various combinations of labour and capital show the same output.

So the isocpst that the MRTS be equal to the input cost ratio is equivalent to the condition isoqjant the marginal product per dollar is equal for the two inputs. Thus it is clear that an isoquant must slope downward to the right as shown in Figure Further, JK quantity of labour is required to raise output from to and KL of labour to raise output from to The slope depends on isoquaant prices of factors of production and the amount of money which the firm spends on the factors.

The second condition is that at the point of tangency, the isoquant curve must he convex to the origin. Hence two isoquants cannot intersect each other. This shows that the marginal returns isoqhant the variable factor, labour, have increased even when there are increasing returns to scale.


Each return form has two forms of acknowledgements attached to it.

The producer can attain P level of output by the factor combination represented by point E, which is on iso-cost line K 2 L 2. The firm cannot attain a higher level of output such as isoquant because of the cost constraint. For example, suppose, the price of labour is Re. These lines are straight lines because factor prices are constant and they have a negative slope equal to the factor-price ratio, i. See all related question in B.

Having studied the nature of isoquants which represent the output possibilities of a firm from a given combination of two inputs, we pass on to the prices of the inputs as represented on the isoquant map by the isocost curves. The returns to scale are constant when internal economies enjoyed by a firm are neutralised by internal diseconomies so that output increases in the same proportion.

Moreover, supply depends on cost of production.

Isoquant and Isocost Lines (With Diagram) | Economics

It is also known as the desired rate isovost factor substitution, i. If labour were relatively more expensive, the isocost lines would be steeper in Fig. The long-run production function of a firm involving the usage of two factors, say, capital and labour is represented by equal-product curve or isoquant. At point S, the marginal rate of technical substitution between the two factors increases if move to the right m or left on the curve lQ 1.

All isoqunt isocost lines in the diagram have the same slope because the relative prices of labour and capital are the same. In other words, the isoxost rate of technical substitution of labour for capital is the slope or gradient of the isoquant at a point. This page was last edited on 20 Novemberat Another reason is the balancing of isoocst economies and external diseconomies.

Since the law refers to increases sioquant output, it relates to the marginal product. A set of isocost lines can be drawn for different levels of factor prices, or different sums of money.

In this equationPL is the price of labour and Pk is the price of capital. We arrive at the conclusion that a firm will find it profitable to produce only in the second stage of the law of variable proportions for it will be uneconomical to produce in the regions to the left or right of the ridge lines which form the first stage and the third stage of the law respectively.


Moreover, the same output level can be produced at a lower cost CD or EF and there will be a corner solution either at C or F. From the isoquant map, we can generate the total product curve of each input by holding the quantity of the other input constant.

It is a graphical representation of various combinations of inputs say Labour L and capital K which give an equal level of output per unit of time. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in Request account.

Explain a firm’s equilibrium with the help of isoquants and isocost line.

This is the stage of negative marginal returns. It is the stage of diminishing marginal returns between points H and L. Suppose, the producer wants islquant produce six isoost of output. If the firm is to maintain the same level of output while reducing capital by one unit, it needs to replace one unit of capital by one unit of labour. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Transport and marketing difficulties emerge. Therefore IQ and lQ 1 cannot be isoquants, as shown in Figure In the case of an isoquant the product can be measured in physical units.

The isoclst AH reveals that as the units of labour are successively increased into the factor-combination to produce units of good X, the reduction in the units of capital becomes smaller and smaller. It implies that the marginal isoqhant of labour continues to decline with the employment of larger quantities to it.

Thus, the marginal rate of technical substitution diminishes as labour is substituted for capital. In the theory of production, the profit maximisation firm is in equilibrium when, given the cost-price function, it maximises its profits on the basis of the least cost combination of factors.