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Livro – Whitebook Livro – Whitebook. The ac line, of course, also has this reversibility.
The initiative in exploring the use of mercury-arc valves for dc transmission was taken by the General Electric Company. They transmitted 4 MW at kV a distance of 3 mi 5 km over an existing line from a station ia the Charlottenburg district of Berlin to one in the Moabit transmision.
The rnonopolar link has one conductor, usually of negative polarity, and ground or sea returno. The bus-tie switches I are normally open.
The United States was inactive in the field of dc transmission, however, for nearly 20 years. Norrnally they operate at equal current; then there is no ground current. Exp1 queda livre Experimento de queda livre. On many long EHV lines, shunt reactors are required for limiting the voltage, especially at light loads, but they may be required even at full load.
The ac input at Mechanicville was at a frequency of 40 Hz, and the output at Schenectady was at 60 Hz.
Most long overhead ac tines require series compensation of part of the induetive reaetanee. Thus was demonstrated a feature of dc transmission that has been important in several subsequent instalIations: Lamm inhas considerably increased the peak inverse voltage that the valves can withstand.
Direct current transmission – Edward Wilson Kimbark – Google Books
EHV transmission links, superposed on a lower-voltage ac network, or inter eonnecting two such networks, or connecting distant generating plants to an ac network, are compared as to their principal components and the arrange ments thereof, according to whether the line operates on ac or dc. The larger of these, rated at 20 MW, was installed at the Edgar Thompson plant of the. Russian engineers have concentrated on single-anode valves, which so far appear to kimbaark been less successful than the ASEA valves.
Building the dc link was judged more economical than construeting additional thermal power plants on the island.
Direct Current Transmission – Kimbark
At present these are not capable of handling the highest voltages and powers required for HV dc transmission. Each pole would be switched independently of the other.
These reactors are usually placed at intermediate switching stations and are so indicated in Figure Ih. Large inductances ealled de. Among these are a limiting the deerease in stability power Iimit attributable to switching out one circuit to clear a fault or for line maintenance, b Iimiting the overvoltage when a line is energized from one end, c providing a place for the connection of grounding transformers to limit the overvoltages of the unfaulted phases with respect to ground when one phase is faulted to ground, and d for con nection of intermediate loads or generation.
The distance is far toa great for ac eable transmission. In the event of a fault on one conductor, the other conductor with ground return can carry up to half of the rated load.
Each valve has two anodes working in parallel. Each converter has two vaIve groups rated 50 kV, A, 10 MW, the groups being in series on the dc side. The hornopolar Iink has two or more conductors ali having the same polar ity, usually negative, and always operates with ground returno In the event of a fault on one conductor, the entire converter is available for connection to the remaining conductor or conductors, which, having some overload capability, can carry more than half of the rated power, and perhaps the whole rated power, at the expense of increased tine loss.
After the more rugged steel-envelope mercury-pool ignitron became available, however, the line was converted in to constant-voltage operation.
One pole of a four conductor line is shown in Figure Id, with two converters per terminal. The phrase “transmission link” denotes the transmission line proper together with its terminal and auxiliary equipment. The whole switching operation would take about 0. There are also several grading electrodes placed between the control grid and the anode for obtaining a more uniform potential gradient than would otherwise existo The grading electrodes are kept at the desired potentials by connecting them to taps on an externaI resistance-capacitance potential divider the ends of which are connected to the anode and control grid.
Direct Current Transmission – Kimbark – Livro de HVDC do Kimbark
The tine itself usually has two conductors, aIthough some Iines have only one, the return path being in the earth or seawater or both. M uch of the time when power is delivered to Gotland, there are no generators in operation there, the only synchronous maehine being a condenser. A noteworthy feature of ASEA valves is the use of several, usually four, anodes in multiple on single-phase valves. The line transmits 20 MW at kV through a single-conductor cable, with return path through the sea and earth.
A demonstration of dc transmission using grid-controlled steel-tank mercury-arc conversion was given at Zurich, Switzerland, inat the Fifth Swiss National Exhibition.