HISTORIA DE LA PALEOPATOLOGIA PDF

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Laboratorio Cangrande della Scala. Abstract Cangrande dd Scalalord of Verona, suddenly died of acute diarrheic illness on 22 Julyafter the conquest of the city of Treviso and of a large part of Northern Italy. Imaging digital X-ray and CAT and autopsy studies of the well-preserved natural mummy of Cangrande showed a good preservation of the internal organs and liver, as well as the feces in the rectum.

Histology evidenced liver fibrosis and a severe irregular lung emphysema, with nodular fibrosis and massive anthracosis. Immunochemical analysis of extracts of feces and liver revealed the presence of toxic concentrations of digoxin and digitoxin, equivalent to several dozens of nanograms per gram, with presence of Digitalis pollen in the feces.

Administration of a brew or foxglove decoction designed to cure or, more likely, to poison the prince, was almost certainly responsible for this acute and fatal intoxication. Introduction Cangrande previously christened Can Francesco della Scala March 9— July 22was an Italian nobleman, the most celebrated of the Della Scala family which ruled Verona from to Well known as the leading patron of the poet Dante AlighieriCangrande was also one of the great military men of his age and important autocrat of that period.

In he became sole ruler of Verona and was regarded as the leader of the Ghibelline faction in northern Italytaking control of several cities such as VicenzaPadua and Treviso until his death in In the spring of Cangrande obtained the title of Imperial Vicar of Mantua from the Emperorintending to move against the Gonzaga family that was ruling the city at that time.

However, his triumph was ruined by the illness he contracted after having drunk, as reported by contemporary sources, from a polluted spring a few days before. Soon after arrival at his lodgings he settled his affairs and died on the morning of 22 July Rumors of poisoning immediately started histiria spread.

At nightfall his body, escorted by the nobles, was taken from Treviso to Verona paleopatologi, where it was temporarily placed in the church of Santa Maria Antiqua.

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From there, it was moved twice, once to the churchyard, and then to a marble tomb over the church entrance, above which is an equestrian statue of Cangrande in tournament armour. When the very heavy stone lid of the sarcophagus Fig. He was lying on his back with his arms folded across the thorax histria his lower limbs extended Fig. Some dense material appeared in the esophagus lumen Fig. Maxillary sinuses were partially occupied by dense, diversified materialas a possible result of chronic sinusitis.

The cranial cavity revealed a good preservation of the menynx Fig. The right thoracic cavity showed some residuals of the lung, formed by a number of irregular cavities surrounded by dense fibrous tissue Figs. These cavities can be interpreted as emphysematous bullae, delimited by fibrous septa. Abdominal CT showed a good preservation of the liver, positioned in the right thoracic cavity, with its typical anatomic shape Fig. Mild arthritis of the column, elbows and hips, as well as meniscus calcification of the knees, could be related to the intense physical activity of the Prince, who was a knight and soldier.

The rotulae appeared laterally dislocated owing to a typical taphonomic process of initial decomposition in an empty space.

Autopsy At the moment of autopsy the abdomen appeared very expanded, probably due to putrified changes Fig.

The skin showed a dark brown color at the head and legs, and light brown under the clothes.

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The soft tissues of the face appeared preserved, with retracted histodia revealing the upper anterior incisors and a flattened nose Fig. The incisors showed some enamel hypoplasia lines. The hair was curly and brown. The stature was 1.

In order to avoid damage to the mummy, autopsy was performed by a circular opening of the abdomen, from the sternum to the pubis, which allowed us to reach the abdominal and thoracic cavities Fornaciari, The viscera appeared totally collapsed on the posterior wall, forming a homogeneous layer of about 5 cm.

The liver was highly positioned in the right thoracic cavity under the hemidiaphragm, and showed a typical anatomic shape, with a transversal diameter of 30 cm, antero-posterior diameter of 15 cm, and weight of g Fig.

This solution consisted of: Histology of the liver showed typical hepatic tissue with many collapsed fibrous portal zones close, but not confluent to each other, by liquefaction of the hepatic cells Fig.

Histology of the aorta revealed some small atheromatous plaques on the luminal surface. Histology of the right lung showed areas of collapsed alveoli with fibrosis and fibro-hyaline nodular formations, surrounded by massive anthracosis Figs. The pulmonary tissue surrounding two fibrous and anthracotic areas appeared to be still expanded, with dilated and confluent alveolidestruction of the septal walls and presence of cell-rich exudate in the lumen Fig.

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This is a classical picture of irregular emphysema Fornaciari, Finally, the nodular fibrosis of the lungs was the result of tuberculosis, a plaeopatologia common disease in the crowded and unhealthy medieval towns of those times. Paleopatolgoia analyses The results of pollen analyses Tab. Internally there is a large amount of pollens of chamomile, black mulberry and, totally unexpected, of foxglove Digitalis sp.

In the Middle Ages chamomile was largely used by os as sedative and antispasmodic drug, and black mulberry was used as astringent; instead foxglove was considered only a poisonous plant. Evidence leans towards deliberate murder by poisoning. Results of pollen anlyses, with presence of Digitalis foxglove in the feces.

The Scientific Study of Mummies. Nuove ipotesi sulla causa di morte di Cangrande della Scala dai risultati delle analisi tossicologiche. Il corpo del Principe. Ricerche su Cangrande della Scala.

Primi risultati dello psleopatologia paleopatologico della mummia di Cangrande. Il corpo di Cangrande della Scala. Misura di digossina e digitossina su campioni biologici del secolo XV. Risultati delle indagini palinologiche.

Significato e prospettive di una ricerca pluridisciplinare.

The histological examination of mummified material. Stain Technology30, La morte di Cangrande della Scala. Strategie di comunicazione intorno al cadavere. La morte e il corredo di un principe nel medioevo europeo.

Giacomo della Marca Computed Tomography CT has become a routinely non-invasive technique in paleopathology, Cosa si cela dentro il monumento paleoatologia di Jacopo Della Quercia? Francesco I e Bianca. Giovanni dalle Bande Nere. I Frantoi nell’Italia Romana. La peste di Alghero.

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Le mummie Aragonesi di San Domenico Na. Progetto Antiche Genti di Pisa. Figura 1 Figura 2 Figura 3 Autopsy At the moment of autopsy the abdomen appeared very expanded, probably due to putrified changes Fig. Figura 4 Figura 5 Pollen analyses The results of pollen laa Tab.

Conclusions In conclusion we can affirm that: The immunochemical methods adopted and their sensitivity. Application of segmentation and 3D rendering techniques in the mummies of Cangrande della Scala and S.