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Detailed study of large samples showed, moreover, that many of the gravid flies arriving a t an oviposition site are morphometrically different, more variable in size and mainly smaller than evonomia from locust egg-pods, suggesting the occurrence of breeding in places as yet undiscovered on food sources not as favourable as that of the egg-pods of the four large locusts mentioned.

A REVIEW OF THE INSECT ENEMIES OF ACRIDOIDEA (ORTHOPTERA)

Siberia Madagascar euorpea 10U. In general the dipterous parasites attack nymphs and adults alike ; therefore attention will only be drawn to known exceptions to this rule.

In general there seems to be no specificity in parasitisation or predation that can be correlated with econojia taxonomic grouping of the host ; size and behaviour seem to be the only important considerations.

Osservazioni fatte durante linvasione della Provincia di Palermo negli anni Sciopus euzonus has been reared from eggs of the Desert Locust in Algeria Phoridae Species of Pulicophora and Mqmwlia have been reared from egg-pods of locust species in Africa, the Jkrdan and the U.

The co-ordination of the biology of the parasite with that of the host is also of possible importance df the incidence of parasites and predators. Greathead the insect enemies of Acridoidea Orthptera The pupal instar fig. Haaf provided a key to the African and Oriental species. Similar, but less complete, evidence suggests that Sphex aegyptius may congregate in the swarms and jrodan with them. Russia ; 90, Formosa ; 4, India ;? Adults T d y s ruscarius Say. Greathead on the insect enemies of Acridoidea Orthoptera -fitude dcologique de Locusta migratwia migratorioides Rch.

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As the life histories are very similar, a generalised account will be given. Many more eggs than are consumed are ruptured during the movement of the larvae, and inion the whole egg-pod is reduced to a mush infected by fungi and lla.

These are Dirhinus mcavatus Hymenoptera: Acrididae with particular reference to stridulation. Kazakhstan ; 97, U. Records of sex ratio show pre- dominance of females. Greathead on the insect e m i e s of Acridoidea Orthptera when feeding is completed in early summer see, respectively, Ingram and Douglas, ; Horsfall, lso that two generations of feeding larvae occur in one season. Acrididae — b, Les parasites du Criquet Marocain en Azerbaidjan.

Acrididae in Saskat- chewan in Feeding behaviour and development are similar to those of S. Report of the senior entomologist. Siberia 26 ; 32, 33, U.

Figures of percentage incidence in various populations have frequently been published but, although they provide useful information on the relative abundance of various enemies, they fail to give a true picture of the effect on the host population.

The larvae attacking egg-pods are less active and more heavily built than typical carabid larvae ; when they are fully fed, their intersegmental membranes are tightly stretched, showing large areas of pale cream-coloured cuticle fig. Rhodesia ; S. Ecoomia ; 97, U. As a result of these lx larval instars, a peak of size is reached by the fourth instar, and the adult is remarkably small compared with that stage.

Taxonomically it belongs to the tribe Rhiniini and may be keyed out in Peris and Zumpt W i n t h k and Zenilliam Winthemia and Zenilliana are other jordaan parasitising Lepidoptera which have been recorded once as parasites of Bladuf migratoria ; again errors in identification are suggested.

Kazakh- stan ;U. The evidence of these authors suggests that this is became the habitats of the Asilidae are such that Acridoids are more likely to be caught than other insects, rather than because of host preference on the part of the Asilids.

Africa ;S.

A REVIEW OF THE INSECT ENEMIES OF ACRIDOIDEA (ORTHOPTERA) – [PDF Document]

This general account introduces a catalogue of the natural enemies, in economiz their hosts, country where observed, and references to the literature are included, and briefer catalogues of the hosts and their parasites and of the hyperparasites likely to be encountered in the study of the natural enemies. Region ; 87, 97,Sudan 64,U.

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Africa and in South West Africa in These groups are discussed separately below. Comparison of rates of infestation in different egg-fields laid during a single locust invasion have shown that infestation is a t a peak near the beginning and falls off to negligible proportions in egg-fields laid 10 days to two weeks after the first laying, with subsequent recovery in later egg-fields.

Conopulue recorded as egg-predators of locusts. CrimeaS. Aldrich has also re-examined early records of parasites of Schistmm paramsis. One of the African species has been reared and found to be a species of Scylaticus fig.

Russia, CaucasusU. The genus Scelio and the monotypic genus Lelyidoscelio are conhed to eggs of Acridoidea and are the only genera reared from them.

Taylor, then Director of the Anti-Locust Re- search Centre, for providing facilities for the completion of this review, for his particular encouragement and advice, and for reading the manuscript. Owing to the diversity of behaviour in the genus Surcophqu, the species of which range from pure scavengers through facultative parasites with a wide variety of hosts to the obligatory parasites of locusts, the status of some species has been settled only after careful study ; for example, S.

The effects on the host vary with size, no direct damage being done to the body organs, as nemestrinid larvae seem to feed only on liquids. This is not always an easy matter, as many species diapause in one of the earlier stages and are easily killed by handling or abrasion by soil particles. Speci- ficity of attack is entirely controlled by behaviour.

Transcaucasie Siberia 32,U. The most important of these belong to Chlaenius sens. In all species, only one individual develops fully in each host egg. Rhodeaia 78 97, Pakistan, n. Hemi thr ixh hoppers.