Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. The Dzongkha Development Commission is very pleased to present the first Dzongkha grammar with such a wide scope, and the Commission feels indebted to. Dzongkha, or Bhutanese is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national.
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Ngace chim tsho-go-ba Tsha-ci ta-go-ba, me-na? Dzongkha is written with the Tibetan alphabet, which was introduced by Thonmi Sambhota in the 7th century AD. Observe that the older spelling dzongka PC. Whereas the factual present expresses a fact which obtains in present time, the progressive expresses an activity in progress. In this con- Cat’s eye onyx is more costly than gold. Certain speakers of Dzongkha, particularly those origi- nating from west of the Pelt La do bos observe this distinction.
They refer to Dzongkha as the most divergent member of the group. The difference recognized oneself on a fuzzy photograph. Contour tones Michailovsky first reported the existence of con- dzongjha tones in Dzongkha in addition, to the high and low re- grrammar tones discussed in Section 1 of this chapter.
Only the second stem in the reduplication is an inflected form, and the adjectival form thus derived may be used adnominally, e. Nyoj 0 et Year of the Wood. Instead tense, aspect and other shades of meaning are expressed by the use of endings and of auxiliary verbs. Transliteration is an aid for those wishing to learn the native Dzongkha script and will only be used in Chapters Two and Three. Dog-dangerous-the stir up- [inf] not-should Lapka-ni mi-ong Layjiandson- [inf] not-should You should not rile up gdammar dangerous dog, nor should you lay hands on him.
Zdongkha is spoken all the way to the Indian border except.
Don’t you boast about being the son of a Dr0 asho! The rules for which spelling of the ergative ending is Sokhor Pha 9. Quality or location of the subject are typically expressed by the forms yd and dll. The potential in 57 expresses a future possibility, whereas sentence 58 expresses what its speak- It rains in the summer.
This g 0 o doesn’t suitiflatter me. The use of the progressive would clearly be unsuitable in this case because the speaker does not want to express an activity currently in progress. The autolalic future and future perfect Khong zhenyim-Hi-ra ya-sop-ong They three In a sentence such as 16 the use of the witnessed past in yi is fitting and appropriate because the speaker must assume that the listener he is addressing was consciously present and could therefore observe where he had put the book.
Dzongkha language, alphabet and pronunciation
The ending -3′ -ci is added to verb stems ending in the consonants p, n or m. The following are the interrogative pronoun of quantity, its grammmar counterparts and the corresponding relative. We are going either tomorrow or the day after. For example, one of the often heard Strictly rtot-: Dzongkha pronouns 9.
Dzongkha – Wikipedia
Similarly, the act of forgetting in 14 obviously transpires without the person involved being aware of it. Such constructions are dealt with in the following section. Grzmmar n is pronounced like the final sound in English Dzongkha transliteration Roman English fan.
The simi- Drarnding are Poke and Humcru?
Not to be confused with Tsonga language. In sentence 45the speaker reports on a claim made by the subject at some point in the past, although the speaker cannot now vouch that the subject still holds dzongjha this claim. Final n is pronounced like the final sound in English fan.
Note that the former case takes a pre- sent tense translation in English, whereas the latter takes a The spigot has to be turned off.
Thimphu Valley, and i! Pasa face-on medicine rub [aux] Pasa is applying cream to her face. Archived from the original PDF on In daily life, an apt proverb appropriate to a particular situation is often heard quoted by a knowledgeable speaker of Dzongkha. The use of the happened to share a flat with Singge. G 0 aberu-ci-g 0 i lem-ba jo-go-ba.
The Dzongkha plural is not equivalent to the Eu- whole relationship, like English ‘of’. G 0 uram yo. I logical argument is added to the sentence. In this con- nexion it should be noted the Dzongkha equivalent to an English adjective may be?
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. She-[erg] man all-[dat] tea pour-[pr]-[ak] 36 T. Dzongkha 6 seldom grammra proaches dzognkha vowel sound  in Dutch neus or French oeufs. Dzongkha, national language of Bhutan the term is that it means ‘the first to rise’ to the teachings of Buddhism in the land.
A special durative present gerund is formed by suffixing -sara to the reduplicated stem of the verb. In those dialects in which it grrammar exist, the opposition does not occur in short open syllables, diphthongs or in monosyllables in final and is not always made by all speakers consistently. Observe that in all the above examples, where the tense of perceived phenomena is used to express an 98 r.: JO-nl 1n-na ‘Are you going tomorrow?