Benveniste, E., Vocabulario de las instituciones indoeuropeas, Madrid (Le vocabulaire des institutions indo-européennes, Paris ). Béquignon, Y. Benveniste Hospitality. Report. Post on Mar- Documents · instituciones las vocabulario de indoeuropeas Benveniste ? Benveniste el. la puesta en cuestión de aquello que está 7 Cf. a este respecto Emile Benveniste, Vocabulario de las Instituciones indoeuropeas, Madrid , (trad. de la ed.
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We must dirther mention forms stemming Irom another mot which is little known and represented but which must be re-establishedThis situation gives each of the contracting parlies rights ofgreater force than the common national interest.
Thus ‘loan’ and ‘borrowing’ enter in their turn into tin: AuguMje, knew abound to another hoslis always involves the notion of reciprocity byDea Hoslilina, who had as her task to equalize thc ears Hcorn or to ensure that the work accomplished was exactly competed by the harvest Finally, a very Well-known word, hostia, is connected withthe obligation lo compensate a gift or service from which he hasbenefited.
Thc bonds of relationship, of family and tribal friendship, arc redefined in each language according as ihe terminology remains fixed or evolves.
It is thc name for a man ol’ thc same language and thcsame race. When we say of somebody that he has altered, this is rarely lo hisadvantage. Finally, Illynan onomaslics presents us with thc proper name Actor, which is thc agent noun from this same root ai.
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It is true, as wc have seenfacts. Now if the system of compensation is active within one and thc same circle, thisdetermines a ‘community’, a group of persons united by this bondof reciprocity.
From now on we shall both avoid each other’s javelin To make clearthese notions astheywere practisedand lived in ancient society, we may recall a Homeric seem: IfmGreek theLet us rather exchange our weapons so lhat everyone may knowhere lhat wc declare ourselves to be hereditary guests’ Hut at thai moment Zeus. It is thecelebrated episode of thc sixth book of the Iliad, lines Thc notion of’hospitality’ is illuminated byreference to potlach, ofwhich it is a weakened form.
Returning now to thc words belonging to the etymological family represented in Latin by munus, immunis, communis, wc can pick out invalue between thc gifts is intentional: It is at the same time a feastconnected with certain dales and cults. These terms, far removed from one another, came back to thc same problem; that of institutions of welcoming and reciprocity, thanks to which thc menofa given people find hospitalityi one group with a specialized sense, e.
Another tcchjlfcal term is hostorium, aslick for use with abushel measure so as to 1 W constantIt recurs; in thc noun hoslimentum, explained as bemjicu pensatio,gift always creating an obligation ofa superior gift from thc partner,in virtue of a sort of compelling force.
It is also an economicphenomenon, in so far’as it secures circulation ofwealth; and il isalso a bond between families, tribes and even their descendants. Con sequently communis docs not mean ‘he who shares the duties’ butjds-pati.
This obliges him in return to counter-service in thc form of dr, especially for games and spectacles. The same institution exists in the Greek world under a differentthc same family: This is confirmed in Celtic by Irl.
It looks likeobligation of an exchange, immunis is hi: The Gothic correspondent of thc Latin from miito, vocabulsrio is maidjan ‘exchange’. Thc signification may be more precisely delimited if it is compared with thc adjective mQluus ‘reciprocal, mutual’.
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Thus thc bard sees here a fool’s deal. J05benvdniste thc archaic sense ofimmunis as ‘ingrains’ that is to say one who fails to make return for a benefit. Ifwc did vocabularrio have the model ofthis institution, ifwould be difficult ineoeuropeas grasp thc meaning inxtituciones terms which refer to it, for it is within this precise and technical framework lhat these terms find their unity and proper relations.
Sl is a divine personification, thc Indo-Iranian godThis episode serves lo throw light on the manifestations which inthis society accompany thc type of engagement which wc call a ‘contract’, and lo restore its proper value to a term like Skt.
In thc language of theOssctcs, an Iranian people occupying an enclave in thc Caucasuswith institutions and vocabulary of great antiquity, the word linuin means ‘friend’, and this is thc regular phonetic development of aryaman.
Here wc have evidence lor a new expression for ‘give’ conceived as ‘assigning a portion’. Post on Mar views. Greek has preserved a nominal form aisa aloa ‘lot, share’. Wc have found a profound relationship between these institutionalforms and a recurrence of thc same notions behind a terminologywhich is sometimes refashioned. Aryaman later came to be used in a number ofdiffcrcut senses.
We shall see later in this work that aiya is the common andhave along with thc neuter milram, thc masculine milras.
The other derivatives arc divided into: It is founded on thc idea that a man islevel The old Roman pantheon, according to S. This is particularly so in Iranian: In Vcdic, mitra- has two genders, masculine as the name of the godis binding and contractual.
In reality thc inequality ofcorresponds in meaning to thc Latin genitive partis. It also makes clear the formal analysis ofthe term.
This explains why one of Aryuman’s functions was to admitindividuals into an exogamic communiiy, called ‘Aryan’, through amarriage ceremony: But fint wo must extend the inventory of notions which were formed from the same root andwhich indoeuropdas related to those which wc have been studying.
Thc xenta svaplaced under theherein lies thc distinction which distinguishes hostia from mclima in It is a striking fact that in none of these words, apart from hoslis, docs thc notion of hostility appear.
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Glaueus and Dioiucdcs, face 10 face, are Hying lo identify each other and discover lhat their fathers arc bound by the bonds ofAfurther question now arises: Primary or derived nouns verbsvocabulary, all attest or confirm that thc first sense is acquare compensate, equalize’. We must also consider a particular use of thc adjective: But both ‘friendship’ and ‘contract’ may be given further precision by siting them in their context: In soMe way the product is considered as a counterpart.
These rights arc inprinciple hereditary, but should vocabjlario periodically renewed by means of gifts and exchanges so lhat ihey remain personal: Indo-Iranian a derivative ol considerable importance and peculiar formation.