Jean-Paul Akayesu (born ) is a former teacher, school inspector, and Republican . External links[edit]. ICTR case documents for Jean Paul Akayesu. Warning: This case deals with topics that are especially grave and may cause trauma invoked by memories of past abuse. If you have. The case arose out of the massacres of perhaps a million Tutsi in Rwanda in Akayesu was mayor.2 A trial chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for.

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In the field of international humanitarian law, a clear distinction as to the thresholds of application has been made between situations of international armed conflicts, in which the law of armed conflicts is applicable as a whole, situations of non-international internal armed conflicts, where Common Article 3 and Additional Protocol II are applicable, and non-international armed conflicts where only Common Article 3 is applicable. He held this position until Octavien Ngenzi Francisco Luis Gordillo Martinez The offence serious violation must be committed within the context of an armed czse The armed conflict can be internal akayesh international; Akahesu offence must be against persons who are not taking any active part in the hostilities; There must be a nexus between the violations and the armed conflict.

The Akayesu judgement includes the first interpretation and akaeysu by an international court of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. ICRC commentaries outline the principles underlying the adoption of common Article 3: This reinforces the legal value of international humanitarian standards on tackling VAW, and helps build a unified commitment to ending sexual violence in conflict.

These assassinations shattered the peace agreement previously established in the hope of ending armed conflict between the Rwandan Patriotic Front akayyesu the Rwandan Government. A commission was created to study this possibility, and its report provided the basis of the Organic Law of 26 Januarywhich created the Gacaca Courts.

Jean-Paul Akayesu – TRIAL International

Individual Criminal Responsibility For the purposes of an international criminal Tribunal which is trying xase, it is not sufficient merely to affirm that Common Article 3 and parts of Article 4 of Additional Protocol II — which comprise the subject-matter jurisdiction of Article 4 of the Statute — form part of international customary law.

From this follows that it is not possible to apply rules in one part of the country i.

Deliberatly inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; 4. General Allegations Unless otherwise specified, all acts and omissions set forth in this indictment took place between 1 January and 31 Decemberin the commune of Taba, prefecture of Gitarama, territory of Rwanda.


During a seventeen-month trial with testimony from forty-two witnesses, the ICTR heard the extent of his crimes. Affirms the verdict of guilty entered against Jean-Paul Akayesu of all the counts on which he was convicted and the sentence of life imprisonment handed down, [ His was the first conviction ever for genocide and it was the first time that an international tribunal ruled that rape and other forms of sexual violence could constitute genocide.

Regarding the Prosecution’s fourth ground of appeal, the Chamber found that “incitement” under Article 6 1 of the Statute need not be “direct and public” para. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Jean-Paul Akayesu

Cas its inception, 92 persons have been indicted in front of the ICTR. His actions in Taba amounted to direct participation in the crime of genocide.

At the time the events occurred, Rwanda was divided administratively into prefectures, which in turn were divided into communes. Such distinction is inherent to the conditions of applicability specified for Common Article akayesh or Additional Protocol II respectively.

Killing members of the group; Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; Forcibly transferring children of the group to another akxyesu.

Article 2 of the Statute, just like the Genocide Convention, stipulates four types of victim groups, namely national, ethnical, racial or religious groups. The Trial Chamber held that rape, which it defined as “a physical invasion of a sexual nature committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive”, and sexual assault constitute acts of genocide insofar as they were committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group, as such.

ICTR, The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu

He allowed rape, sexual violence and other inhumane acts to akayssu place within or near his office. The RPF troops were disciplined and possessed a structured leadership which was answerable to authority.

Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group paragraph d: The duties and responsibilities of the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols, hence, will normally apply only to individuals of all ranks belonging to the armed forces under the military command of either of the belligerent parties, or to individuals who were legitimately mandated and expected, as public officials or agents or persons otherwise holding public authority or de facto representing the Government, to support or fulfil the war efforts.


Displaced civilians were also murdered frequently on or near the bureau communal premises.

Jean-Paul Akayesu Case | Tackling Violence against Women

This page was last edited on 1 Decemberat We use cookies on this site to understand how you use our content, and to give you the best browsing experience. The Tribunal opined that rape and sexual violence constitute acts of genocide when they are committed with the specific intent of destroying, in whole or in part, a particular group, as such. In the present case, evidence has been presented to the Chamber which showed there was at the least a conflict not of a international character in Rwanda at the time of the events alleged in the Indictment.

He is married with five children. What is the special intent or dolus specialis necessary for genocide to take place? Similarly, the Chamber notes that the ICRC commentary on Common Article 3 suggests useful criteria resulting from the various amendments discussed during the Diplomatic Conference of Geneva,inter alia: It was also the first conviction of an individual for rape as a crime against humanity.

Although he had the authority and responsibility to do so, Jean Paul AKAYESU never attempted to prevent the killing of Tutsis in fase commune in any way or called for assistance from regional or national authorities to quell the violence. The Appeals Chamber is of the view that the minimum protection provided for victims under common Article 3 implies necessarily effective punishment on persons who violate it. At least Tutsis were killed in Taba between April 7 and the aakayesu of June,while he was still in power.

Because of the extreme violence of the conflict, hundreds of civilians sought refuge in communal government buildings. The initial indictment issued by the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda ICTR contained 12 counts — from genocide, aiding and abetting and publicly encouraging genocide to several violations of the common article 3 of the Geneva Conventions and other acts which amount to crimes against humanity murder, torture, cruel treatment and extermination.